Solar Cells Making



Photovoltaic Solar cells
Thin Silicon disks that convert sunlight into electricity. These disks act as energy sources for a wide variety of uses, including calculators and other small devices; telecommunications; rooftop Panels on individual houses; and for Lighting, Pumping etc.

Raw Materials
The basic component of a Solar cell is pure Silicon. Pure Silicon is derived from such Silicon dioxides as Quartzite gravel (the purest silica) or crushed Quartz. The Silicon disks are shiny and require an anti-reflective coating, usually titanium dioxide.

Silicon Semiconductor
The Solar module consists of the Silicon semiconductor surrounded by protective material in a metal Frame. The protective material consists of an encapsulant of transparent Silicon rubber or butyryl plastic bonded around the cells, which are then embedded in ethylene vinyl acetate.




Polyester Film:
A polyester film makes up the backing. A glass cover is found on terrestrial arrays, a lightweight plastic cover on satellite arrays. The electronic parts are standard and consist mostly of copper. The Frame is either steel or aluminum.

The Manufacturing Process:

Purifying the Silicon
The Silicon dioxide of either Quartzite gravel or crushed Quartz is placed into an electric arc furnace. A carbon arc is then applied to release the oxygen. The products are carbon dioxide and molten Silicon. A rod of impure Silicon is passed through a heated zone several times in the same direction. At a specific point, the Silicon is deemed pure, and the impure end is removed.

Making single Crystal Silicon
Solar cells are made from Silicon boules, polyCrystalline structures that have the atomic structure of a single Crystal. A seed Crystal of Silicon is dipped into melted polyCrystalline Silicon. As the seed Crystal is withdrawn and rotated, a cylindrical ingot or "boule" of Silicon is formed.




Placing Electrical contacts
Electrical contacts connect each Solar cell to another and to the receiver of produced current. The contacts must be very thin so as not to block sunlight to the cell. After the contacts are in place, thin strips are placed between cells. The most commonly used strips are tin-coated copper.

The anti-reflective coating: Because pure Silicon is shiny, it can reflect up to 35 percent of the sunlight. Commercial Solar cell manufacturers use Silicon nitride. Encapsulating the cell sealed into Silicon rubber or ethylene vinyl acetate. The encapsulated Solar cells are then placed into an aluminum Frame that has a mylar or tedlar backsheet and a glass or plastic cover.

Solar Frame: By Solar Cells, Solar Frame will be made. Main purpose of Solar energy is to save electricity. Nowadays farmers are using for Water Pumps, Software persons also in home at the top, they are generating Solar Energy for their computers. Industries are also using Solar Energy heavily, Getting Solar energy is a great saving to Electricity and Nation also.


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