∈ denotes set of membership.

Example: -

a ∈ S means a is an element of the set S; a ∉ S means a is not an element of S.

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Set with no elements.

ϴ means the set with no elements. { } means the same.

Set with common elements.

A ∩ B means the set, that contains all those elements that A and B have in common.

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P(X) means the probability of the event X occurring.

This may also be written as P(X), Pr(X), P[X] or Pr[X].

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R means the set of real numbers.

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U means the universal set;

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The statement A ∨ B is true if A or B (or both) are true;

if both are false, the statement is false.

The statement A ∧ B is true if A and B are both true; else it is false.

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u × v means the cross product of vectors u and v

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