Facial tissues belong to a class of paper products used extensively for personal hygiene in modern society.
Other products of this type include paper towels, napkins, and sanitary (or toilet) tissue. These products
are designed to be highly absorbent, soft, and flexible. These pleasant tactile properties are especially
important for facial and bathroom tissues, considering their use. To optimize pleasant skin feel, tissues
have been developed with softening agents or lotion-type ingredients to reduce any chafing effect on
delicate parts of the body.
A process in which the nonwoven fabric is made from a solution of cellulose fibers and water,
formed into a sheet, then coated with softening agents. Finally, the coated fabric is cut
into individual tissues, folded, and packaged for sale.
Tissue softness is a tactile perception characterized by the sheet's physical properties, such as
flexibility or stiffness, texture, and frictional properties. For example, softness can be increased
by adding agents that interfere with the way the fibers within the tissue interact, making them less
closely bonded to each other. These are known as debonding agents.
Nonwoven tissue paper: Tissue paper is a nonwoven fabric made from cellulosic fiber pulp. Common fibers used
in tissue paper pulp include wood, rayon, bagasse, and recycled paper. These fibers are macerated in
a machine known as a hydropulper, which is a cylindrical tank with a rapidly revolving rotor at the
bottom that breaks fiber bundles apart.
In this process the fibers are mixed in a cooking liquor with water and either calcium, magnesium,
ammonia, or sodium bisulfite. This mixture is cooked into a viscous slurry containing
about 0.5% solids on the basis of weight.
Bleaching agents are added to this mixture to whiten and brighten the pulp. Common bleaching agents
include chlorine, peroxides, or hydrosulfites. The pulp is then washed and filtered multiple times
until it is the fibers are completely free from contaminants. This mixture of pulp and water,
known as a "furnish," is then ready for the papermaking.
Lotion (Softening additives):
Softening agents are oily or waxy materials that are coated onto the tissue fabric to improve
its tactile properties. These materials are too concentrated to coat directly on the paper, so they
must be diluted with water first. However, these oils do not dissolve in water, they must be dispersed
in water with the aid of chemicals known as surface active agents, or surfactants. A mixture of water,
oils, and a surfactant is known as an emulsion. Mayonnaise is an example of a food product emulsion.
The Manufacturing Process:
A variety of specialized equipment is used to press the pulp mixture, or furnish, into a nonwoven sheet
of fabric-like paper. Nonwoven fabrics are different from traditional fabrics because of the way they are
made. Traditional fabrics are made by weaving fibers together to create an interlocking network of fiber
loops. Nonwovens are assembled by mechanically, chemically, or thermally interlocking the fibers. There
are two primary methods of assembling nonwovens, the wet laid process and the dry laid process. The wet
laid process is employed for making the type of nonwoven used in tissue production.
Lotion preparation and application:
The lotion is prepared in steam-heated batch tanks equipped with high speed mixing blades. The oils
and water may be preheated and are blended together with high shear to form an emulsion. The completed
lotion is ready to be applied to the paper surface and is pumped from the batch tanks to a holding
vessel connected to the coating equipment.
Forming operations and packaging:
The web passes through a series of rotating knives that cut it to the desired width. The coated tissue
is then sliced at tissue-sized intervals, folded, and packaged in boxes or cellophane wrap.
Related to lotion application include analytical testing and subjective panel evaluations.
Since the amount of material deposited on the tissue is critical, the industry has established
various tests to measure how much is actually present on the tissue surface. The amount of
polyhydroxy compounds present can be determined by stripping the compounds from a tissue
sample using a method known as the Webul solvent extraction.
Note: If you want to start individually then you should gain practical experience at least one year.
Here we have given basic information only. Please have clear document from scratch level process,
raw materials, machinery etc. Then you will be successful.
Wishing you all the best,