Vinyl floorcovering is defined as either resilient vinyl sheet floorcovering or resilient vinyl tile floorcovering.
Vinyl sheet floor-covering is generally available in either 6 ft (1.83 m) or 12 ft (3.66 m) widths and vinyl tiles
are generally 12 x 12 in (30.48 x 30.48 cm). Sheet goods are generally retailed with no sticky backing. Thus,
adhesives need to be purchased to adhere the flooring to underlayment. Vinyl tiles may be purchased dry or with
a pressure-sensitive glue backing protected by a paper covering that must be removed by the installer.
Vinyl sheet flooring, particularly, varies in thickness and in manner decorated. Thinner sheet vinyl is
10-15 mils in thickness as opposed to longer wearing sheet vinyl that may be 25-30 mils thick. Patterns
may be printed with a rotary press or with large plates engraved intaglio with the design engraved below
the surface of the metal. Both printing methods impress a pattern on top of the gel layer of foam and
underneath the wear layer, rendering a relatively durable pattern.
These vinyl floorcoverings are preferred by many homeowners for their ease of installation—many do-it-yourselfers
are able to install them with relative ease. However, vinyl sheet floorcoverings that are 25-30 mils may difficult
to handle or install for the unskilled homeowner. The vinyl tiles are far easier to install and are the vinyl
flooring most often installed by the home-owner. Furthermore unlike other flooring materials, sharp blades
will easily cut the vinyl flooring so that it may conform to corners, cabinets, and curves.
Vinyl floorcoverings may be applied over old flooring, and are easily cleaned with a vacuum or a mop with soap
and warm water. To the delight of many householders, with proper care, many brands do not require waxing.
Polyurethane coatings render a high-gloss finish that emulates a shiny, waxy surface and generally stays
rather shiny over the years. If dulled, a special vinyl floor finish may be applied. Vinyl floorcoverings
are not as durable as ceramic tile and will have to be replaced periodically.
As with many household materials, vinyl sheet and tile flooring comes in residential grade and commercial grade.
Residential vinyl flooring varies in thickness, method used for imprinting or decorating, and style. Commercial
vinyl floorcoverings conform to specifications that require superior durability and stain resistance. Some
commercial-grade vinyl floorcovering is non-slip for high public traffic areas.
The primary components of vinyl floorcoverings include polyvinyl chloride (or vinyl) resins, plasticizers,
pigments and trace stabilizers, and a carrier sheet or backing. The backing may be felt or highly filled
paper made from wood pulp and calcium carbonate. High-gloss surface vinyl sheets or vinyl tiles have
an additional polyurethane coating applied at the end of the process. The glue applied to the back of
some vinyl tiles is made from organic resins.
The design departments of vinyl floorcovering companies are constantly seeking new inspiration for successful
patterns and colors that will work in sheet and tile form. The designers work with marketing groups to
determine what colors and styles will capture the public's interest as much as five years from current
production. The designs are transferred from drawing to computer, and mock-ups of the different patterns
are produced in an array of colors. The designs are then printed off of the computer on full-size
paper and in full color.
If a full-scale paper pattern is approved for further development, printing plates either 18 x 24 in
(45.72 x 61 cm) or 24 x 36 in (61 x 91.44 cm) in size are created by engravers. These plates are then
used to print samples of the pattern on undecorated flooring (called gel stock) as prototypes. The wear
layer, or final, often shiny surface of the sheet flooring, is applied over the printed pattern,
so the designers have a close approximation of the finished product.
The prototype is either approved as is, retooled, or dropped. The time it takes from design to market varies
from as little as three months or as long as six months.
Making the vinyl sheet floorcovering:
Vinyl resins and plasticizers are stirred together in a vat to make a plastisol. To this plastisol, AZO compound
is added. When the resins, plasticizers, and AZO compound is heated, the AZO compound decomposes forming nitrogen
gas bubbles. From this mixture, a vinyl foam is produced. This vinyl foam has the consistency of pancake batter
and can be spread, in a slurry, onto the installation medium or backing.
The slurry is laid down on the felt or wood pulp backing via a reverse roll coater—it is poured on and smoothed out.
The coated sheet then goes through an oven where the vinyl foam is gelled. The oven is heated just enough for the
vinyl resin to absorb the plasticizer and set.
At this point, the gel is run through a printing press and is impressed with metal intaglio plates. This impresses
the pattern into the gel sheet, creating the decorative pattern.
A second mixing of plasticizer and vinyl are applied on the printed gel. The gel is run through an oven at an
even higher temperature. In the oven, the vinyl resin absorbs the plasticizer and melts, creating a clear vinyl.
Printed patterns and inlaid patterns are thus protected under this wear layer rendering the pattern durable.
If the pattern requires a matte finish, the sheet vinyl is essentially ready to be rolled. patterns designed
with a high gloss finish receive a layer of polyurethane coating via rollers. The thickness of this coating is
controlled with an air knife to insure a consistent thickness.
The polyurethane coating is cured photochemically with ultraviolet radiation lamps and is ready to be rolled.
The matte or high-gloss vinyl sheet flooring is then cut to rolls that are 12 ft (3.66 m) wide x 1,500 ft (457.2 m)
long that can be subdivided based on the needs of retailers.
As with most manufactured goods, all raw materials are checked to insure they meet minimum quality standards
of production for the company. Felt or paper backings are checked for thickness and tensile strength. Physical
tests are performed on coatings—viscosity, lumpiness, etc. are examined. If all ingredients are chemically and
physically adequate to render a quality product, the manufacturing can begin.
Intermediary checks are made to insure that standards are met. Members of the production staff perform visual
checks on all pieces. If the larger roll does have contain an imperfection, quality control personnel adjust
the computerized cut map that informs the cutting machines to cut around imperfections.
Commercial tiles and sheet vinyl used by Housing and Urban Development (HUD) undergo an array of testing
including minimum thickness requirement, durability, flammability, etc.
No hazardous materials are unleashed into the environment as a byproduct of the manufacture of vinyl
floorcovering. Waste products are either recycled at the point of manufacture or sent to a reclaimer
for disposal. The heavy metal stabilizers and pigments used by the vinyl floorcovering industry were
replaced years ago with those considered more environmentally safe. Presently, the industry is examining
ways to utilize waste vinyl which results from manufacture as well as recycle or reclaim the scrap vinyl
floorcovering discarded by the consumer.
Wishing you all the best,